A report developed for the CCUS Action Group by the International Energy Agency and the UK Carbon Capture and Storage Association was presented to energy ministers and heads of delegation at the fourth Clean Energy Ministerial in New Delhi on 17–18 April 2013. The report, titled Global Action to Advance Carbon Capture and Storage: A Focus on Industrial Applications, explains that while CCS is already proven in some industrial sectors such as natural gas processing, commercial-scale demonstration has not yet been achieved in key sectors such as iron and steel, cement, and some processes in the refining sector.
Industrial applications offer some exciting opportunities for the early deployment of CCS at low cost; however, further action will be required to deliver this outcome. The report recommends six critical actions to be taken by governments and industry to help overcome the barriers to the accelerated deployment of CCS technology in key industrial sectors:
- Governments should commit public funds for CCS demonstration, especially in the iron and steel and cement sectors.
- Initially, policies should reward first-mover CCS demonstration projects for their contribution to knowledge rather than for their short-term impact on emission reductions.
- CCS should be incorporated into forward-looking government industrial strategies.
- Governments must address issues of competitiveness in relation to climate and energy policies when providing incentives for CCS in industrial applications.
- Synergies between various sectors should be exploited, including in the power sector, to optimize demonstration and early deployment.
- Governments should involve all relevant industrial sectors in their broader CCS development and stakeholder engagement activities.
The third Clean Energy Ministerial meeting in London in 2012 identified CCS in industrial applications as a crucial area for action to cut global greenhouse gas emissions. Representing one-fifth of total global carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, industrial sectors such as cement, iron and steel, chemicals, and refining are expected to emit even more CO2 over the coming decades. CCS is the only large-scale CO2 abatement technology available to cut the emissions intensity of production in these sectors by over 50 percent.